In the course of experiments designed to study the immune response of purified populations of B lymphocytes to thymus-independent (TI) antigens, a variety of cell purification procedures were followed. In using anti-immunoglobulin-coated dishes to separate lymphocytes bearing membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) from mIg- lymphocytes, it was found that the nonadherent fraction, which was predominantly mIg-, complement receptor negative, and nonresponsive to the B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide, gave very substantial anti-TNP plaque-forming cell responses to 2 TI antigens. These responses could be inhibited by incubation of such cells in the presence of anti-mu and thus appeared to be attributable to mIg+ cells. The evidence suggests the existence of a population of B lymphocytes that constitute a minor component of mIg+ cells having a high potential to make in vitro antibody responses. Users of techniques that utilize anti-Ig as a tool for separating B and T lymphocytes should carefully assess the extent to which residual B lymphocytes in the mIg- population contribute to antibody responses being studied.