Immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes are assembled during lymphocyte maturation through site-specific V(D)J recombination events. Here we show that E2A proteins act in concert with RAG1 and RAG2 to activate Ig VK1J but not Iglambda VlambdaIII-Jlambda1 rearrangement in an embryonic kidney cell line. In contrast, EBF, but not E2A, promotes VlambdaIII-Jlambda1 recombination. Either E2A or EBF activate IgH DH4J recombination but not V(D)J rearrangement. The Ig coding joints are diverse, contain nucleotide deletions, and lack N nucleotide additions. IgK VJ recombination requires the presence of the E2A transactivation domains. These observations indicate that in nonlymphoid cells a diverse Ig repertoire can be generated by the mere expression of the V(D)J recombinase and a transcriptional regulator.