Lymphoma (Lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma) and leukemic (chronic lymphocytic, acute and chronic myeloid, myelomonocytic leukemia) cells were studied by indirect immunofluorescence to evaluate the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and human malignant tumor nuclear antigen (HMTNA) in their nucleoli. Most cells in lymph node smears of lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (NHML) developed a bright nucleolar fluorescence with HMTNA antibodies. PCNA was detected in nucleoli of a limited number of cells which apparently represent the proliferating cell population in these lymphomas. Similarly, in the bone marrow smears of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia most cells possessed a nucleolar fluorescence for HMTNA and PCNA was present in nucleoli of a limited number of cells. In the bone marrow smears of patients with myeloid or myelomonocytic leukemias most blastic or monocytoid cells also developed a bright nucleolar fluorescence with HMTNA antibodies and PCNA was present only in a small percentage of these cells. Leukemic cells with PCNA in their nucleoli like thekhuntigen might represent a proliferating cell population in late G1-early S phase.