Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress immunologic damage in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the isolation and ex vivo expansion of these cells for clinical application remains challenging. Here, we investigated whether the IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex (IL-2C), a mediator of Treg expansion, can attenuate renal IRI in mice. IL-2C administered before bilateral renal IRI induced Treg expansion in both spleen and kidney, improved renal function, and attenuated histologic renal injury and apoptosis after IRI. Furthermore, IL-2C administration reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and attenuated the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in renal tissue. Depletion of Tregs with anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the beneficial effects of IL-2C. However, IL-2C-mediated renal protection was not dependent on either IL-10 or TGF-β. Notably, IL-2C administered after IRI also enhanced Treg expansion in spleen and kidney, increased tubular cell proliferation, improved renal function, and reduced renal fibrosis. In conclusion, these results indicate that IL-2C-induced Treg expansion attenuates acute renal damage and improves renal recovery in vivo, suggesting that IL-2C may be a therapeutic strategy for renal IRI.