Follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) provide critical help to B cells during humoral immune responses. Here we report that mice with T cell-specific deletion of the miR-17∼92 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) had substantially compromised T(FH) differentiation, germinal-center formation and antibody responses and failed to control chronic viral infection. Conversely, mice with T cell-specific expression of a transgene encoding miR-17∼92 spontaneously accumulated T(FH) cells and developed a fatal immunopathology. Mechanistically, the miR-17∼92 family controlled the migration of CD4(+) T cells into B cell follicles by regulating signaling intensity from the inducible costimulator ICOS and kinase PI(3)K by suppressing expression of the phosphatase PHLPP2. Our findings demonstrate an essential role for the miR-17∼92 family in T(FH) differentiation and establish PHLPP2 as an important mediator of their function in this process.