Marker bacterial Neor gene was transduced by retroviral gene transfer into stromal precursor cells making up the hematopoietic microenvironment in murine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC). Cultures were infected six times during the first 3 weeks of cultivation. At 4 weeks, the adherent cell layers (ACLs) were implanted under the renal capsule of syngeneic unirradiated and irradiated mice. Cells from newly formed ectopic foci were explanted into secondary LTBMC. ACLs containing the marker gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction. About 74% of stromal cells in ACLs contained Neor gene. The possibility of stable gene transduction into stromal precursor cells competent to transfer the hematopoietic microenvironment was established.