Observations over the last decade suggest that some RNA transcripts, such as non-coding RNAs, function in regulating the transcriptional and epigenetic state of gene expression. DNA methylation appears to be operative in non-coding RNA regulation of gene expression. Interestingly, methylated cytosines undergo deamination to remove the methylation, which if not properly repaired results in the methylated cytosine being recognized by the cell as a thymine. This observation suggests that the process of non-coding RNA-directed epigenetic targeting also has the potential to alter the genomic landscape of the cell by changing cytosines to thymines and ultimately influence the evolution of the cell. This proposed theory of "RNA-mediated gene evolution" might be one possible mechanism of action whereby RNA participates in the natural selective process to drive cellular and possibly organismal evolution.