Auxin is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. We used a chemical genetics approach to identify SIR1, a regulator of many auxin-inducible genes. The sir1 mutant was resistant to sirtinol, a small molecule that activates many auxin-inducible genes and promotes auxin-related developmental phenotypes. SIR1 is predicted to encode a protein composed of a ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like domain and a Rhodanese-like domain homologous to that of prolyl isomerase. We suggest a molecular context for how the auxin signal is propagated to exert its biological effects.