Immune complexes combining IL-2 with particular anti-IL-2 antibodies can be used to selectively expand regulatory T cells or memory T cells. Combining IL-2 with anti-IL-2 (Clone S4B6) greatly enhances the biological potency of IL-2 in vivo leading to selective expansion of CD8 memory T cells and NK cells compared with regulatory T cells. Here we show that in vivo administration of IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (IL-2/mAb) complexes induces 4-1BB expression on both adoptively transferred antigen-specific memory CD8 T cells as well as on endogenous memory phenotype cells. Remarkably, the accumulation of adoptively transferred memory CD8 T cells following in vivo IL-2/mAb-complex treatment was found to be dependent in part on the presence of 4-1BBL in the host. These effects were independent of IL-2-induced cell division, suggesting that 4-1BBL-induced survival signals contribute to IL-2/mAb-complex-induced T-cell accumulation in vivo.