The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays critical roles in development, immune function, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Here we demonstrate that, like the CC-chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2b, CXCR4 is posttranslationally modified by sulfation of its amino-terminal tyrosines. The sulfate group at tyrosine 21 contributes substantially to the ability of CXCR4 to bind its ligand, stromal derived factor 1 alpha. Tyrosine sulfation plays a less significant role in CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 entry than in CCR5-dependent HIV-1 entry. In some cell lines, CXCR4 is efficiently modified by a chondroitin sulfate chain at serine 18, but neither HIV-1 entry nor stromal derived factor 1 alpha binding was affected by loss of this glycosaminoglycan. These data demonstrate a functional role for tyrosine sulfate in the CXC-chemokine receptor family and underscore a general difference in HIV-1 utilization of CCR5 and CXCR4.