Arenaviruses have a bisegmented, negative-strand RNA genome. Both the large (L) and small (S) genome segments use an ambisense coding strategy to direct the synthesis of two viral proteins. The L segment encodes the virus polymerase (L protein) and the matrix Z protein, whereas the S segment encodes the nucleoprotein (NP) and the glycoprotein precursor (GPC). NPs are the most abundant viral protein in infected cells and virions and encapsidate genomic RNA species to form an NP-RNA complex that, together with the virus L polymerase, forms the virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core capable of directing both replication and transcription of the viral genome. RNP formation predicts a self-association property of NPs. Here we document self-association (homotypic interaction) of the NP of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), as well as those of the hemorrhagic fever (HF) arenaviruses Lassa virus (LASV) and Machupo virus (MACV). We also show heterotypic interaction between NPs from both closely (LCMV and LASV) and distantly (LCMV and MACV) genetically related arenaviruses. LCMV NP self-association was dependent on the presence of single-stranded RNA and mediated by an N-terminal region of the NP that did not overlap with the previously described C-terminal NP domain involved in either counteracting the host type I interferon response or interacting with LCMV Z.