Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory vascular disease. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major initiators of inflammation. TLR2 promotes atherosclerosis in LDL receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 to enable inflammatory responses in the presence of distinct ligands. Here we asked whether TLR1 and/or TLR6 are required. We studied atherosclerotic disease using either TLR1- or TLR6-deficient mice. Deficiency of TLR1 or TLR6 did not diminish HFD-driven disease. When HFD-fed LDLr-deficient mice were challenged with Pam3 or MALP2, specific exogenous ligands of TLR2/1 or TLR2/6, respectively, atherosclerotic lesions developed with remarkable intensity in the abdominal segment of the descending aorta. In contrast to atherosclerosis induced by the endogenous agonists, these lesions were diminished by deficiency of either TLR1 or TLR6. The endogenous ligand(s) that arise from consumption of a HFD and promote disease via TLR2 are unknown. Either TLR1 or TLR6 are redundant for this endogenous ligand detection, or they are both irrelevant to endogenous ligand detection. However, the exogenous ligands Pam3 and MALP2 promote severe abdominal atherosclerosis in the descending aorta that is dependent on TLR1 and TLR6, respectively.