The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Importantly, virulence factor expression and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa is coordinated by quorum sensing (QS) and one of the key QS signaling molecules is 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Remarkably, a tetramic acid, (C12-TA), with antibacterial properties is formed spontaneously from 3-oxo-C12-HSL under physiological conditions. Seeking to better understand this relationship, we sought to investigate whether 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C12-TA may be contributing factors to the overall pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in CF individuals and if their detection and quantitation in sputum samples might be used as an indicator to assess disease states and monitor therapy success in CF patients. To this end, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C12-TA concentrations were initially analyzed in P. aeruginosa flow cell biofilms using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was then developed and validated for their detection and quantification in the sputa of CF patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the presence of both the quorum sensing molecule (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and its rearranged product (C12-TA) in human clinical samples such as sputum. A total of 47 sputum samples from 20 CF and 2 non-CF individuals were analyzed. 3-Oxo-C12-HSL was detected and quantified in 45 samples with concentrations ranging from 20 to >1000 nM; C12-TA was found in 14 samples (13-900 nM). On the basis of our findings, quorum sensing autoinducers merit further investigation as biomarkers for infectious disease states.