By the use of the indirect immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization techniques, the distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) and CGRP mRNA was studied in the spinal cord as well as in the midline raphe nuclei and the hypoglossal nucleus in the medulla oblongata of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In the spinal cord only a few large neurons in the motor nucleus contained CGRP-LI, while a majority of the neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus contained CGRP-LI. A relatively dense innervation by CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was also seen close to cell bodies and proximal dendrites of large neurons in the motor nucleus, especially in its ventral part. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-, substance P- and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-IR varicosities were also observed in a similar position around large neurons in the motor nucleus. Double labeling disclosed that the majority of CGRP-IR axon terminals also contained 5-HT-LI. Expression of CGRP mRNA was found in neurons in the medullary midline raphe nuclei and in large neurons in the motor nucleus at the cervical spinal cord level. In adjacent sections of the medulla oblongata, CGRP-labeled neurons in the midline raphe nuclei also expressed preprotachykinin mRNA. The present results show that CGRP- and 5-HT-LI coexist in fibers within the motor nucleus of the monkey spinal cord and that this coexistence is probably due to the presence of CGRP in the descending bulbospinal, serotonergic pathway.