IL-2 has been approved for treatment of patients with cancer. Moreover, it has been used as a component of vaccines against cancer. In this regard, we have recently demonstrated that dendritic cell-based peptide vaccination in mice required IL-2 to mount an effective immune response against established melanoma metastases. In this study, we confirm this observation by use of tumor-targeted IL-2. However, the development of a protective systemic memory was substantially impaired by this measure, i.e., mice, which successfully rejected s.c. tumors of B16 melanoma after vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with tyrosinase-related protein 2-derived peptides plus a boost with targeted IL-2, failed to reject a rechallenge with experimental pulmonary metastases. Detailed analysis revealed a change in the distribution of the tumor-reactive T cell population: although targeted IL-2 expanded the local effector population, tyrosinase-related protein 2-reactive T cells were almost completely depleted from lymphatic tissues.