The gp120 envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) promotes virus entry by sequentially binding CD4 and chemokine receptors on the target cell. Primary, clinical HIV-1 isolates require interaction with CD4 to allow gp120 to bind the CCR5 chemokine receptor efficiently. We adapted a primary HIV-1 isolate, ADA, to replicate in CD4-negative canine cells expressing human CCR5. The gp120 changes responsible for the adaptation were limited to alteration of glycosylation addition sites in the V2 loop-V1-V2 stem. The gp120 glycoproteins of the adapted viruses bound CCR5 directly, without prior interaction with CD4. Thus, a major function of CD4 binding in the entry of primary HIV-1 isolates can be bypassed by changes in the gp120 V1-V2 elements, which allow the envelope glycoproteins to assume a conformation competent for CCR5 binding.