Several members of the chemokine receptor family are used together with CD4 for HIV-1 entry into target cells. T cell line-tropic (T-tropic) HIV-1 viruses use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as a co-receptor, whereas macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) primary viruses use CCR5 (refs 2-6). Individuals with defective CCR5 alleles exhibit resistance to HIV-1 infection, suggesting that CCR5 has an important role in vivo in HIV-1 replication. A subset of primary viruses can use CCR3 as well as CCR5 as a co-receptor, but the in vivo contribution of CCR3 to HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis is unknown. HIV-1 infects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes the dementia associated with AIDS. Here we report that the major target cells for HIV-1 infection in the CNS, the microglia, express both CCR3 and CCR5. The CCR3 ligand, eotaxin, and an anti-CCR3 antibody inhibited HIV-1 infection of microglia, as did MIP-1beta, which is a CCR5 ligand. Our results suggest that both CCR3 and CCR5 promote efficient infection of the CNS by HIV-1.