The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of specific chemokine receptors in addition to CD4 to enter its target cell. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is used by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1, which predominate during the asymptomatic stages of infection. Here we investigate whether the ability of CCR5 to signal in response to its beta-chemokine ligands is necessary or sufficient for viral entry. Three CCR5 mutants with little or no ability to mobilize calcium in response to macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta could nonetheless support HIV-1 entry and the early steps in the virus life cycle with efficiencies comparable with those of wild-type CCR5. Conversely, a chimeric receptor with the N terminus of CCR2 replacing that of CCR5 responded to macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta and MCP-1 but did not efficiently support viral entry. These results demonstrate that chemokine signaling and HIV-1 entry are separable functions of CCR5 and that only viral entry requires the N-terminal domain of CCR5.