Acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major challenge in the treatment of cancer with chemotherapeutic drugs. It can be mediated by the up-regulated expression of different proteins within the tumor cell membrane. Here, we used murine multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) as a target-antigen for the immunotherapy of cancer. We successfully demonstrated that peripheral T cell tolerance can be broken by oral administration of a DNA vaccine encoding MDR-1 and carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs. Thus, mice, immunized orally three times at 2-wk intervals and challenged 2 wk thereafter with either MDR-1 expressing CT-26 colon carcinoma cells or MDR-1 expressing Lewis lung carcinoma cells, revealed a significant increase in life span. This was evident, when compared with animals either vaccinated with the empty control vector or challenged with the parental cell lines lacking overexpression of MDR-1. The immune response induced was antigen-specific and CD8+ T cell-mediated. The presence of the target antigen led to up-regulation of activation markers on CD8+ T cells and resulted in a strong cytotoxic T cell response as well as lysis of tumor target cells in vitro. We furthermore established the vaccine to be an effective treatment for established multi-drug-resistant tumor metastases, resulting in a significantly increased life span of experimental animals. Absence of CD8+ T cells due to in vivo depletion led to abrogation of effectiveness. Taken together, our results demonstrate that T cell tolerance against the MDR-1 self-antigen can be broken. It is anticipated that the combination of such an approach with chemotherapy could lead to more effective treatments of cancer.