TLR4 is the primary recognition molecule for inflammatory responses initiated by bacterial LPS (endotoxin). Internalization of endotoxin by various cell types is an important step for its removal and detoxification. Because of its role as an LPS-signaling receptor, TLR4 has been suggested to be involved in cellular LPS uptake as well. LPS uptake was investigated in primary monocytes and endothelial cells derived from TLR4 and CD14 knockout C57BL/6 mice using tritiated and fluorescein-labeled LPS. Intracellular LPS distribution was investigated by deconvolution confocal microscopy. We could not observe any difference in LPS uptake and intracellular LPS distribution in either monocytes or endothelial cells between TLR4(-/-) and wild-type cells. As expected, CD14(-/-) monocytes showed a highly impaired LPS uptake, confirming CD14-dependent uptake in monocytes. Upon longer incubation periods, the CD14-deficient monocytes mimicked the LPS uptake pattern of endothelial cells. Endothelial cell LPS uptake is slower than monocyte uptake, LBP rather than CD14 dependent, and sensitive to polyanionic polymers, which have been shown to block scavenger receptor-dependent uptake mechanisms. We conclude that TLR4 is not involved in cellular LPS uptake mechanisms. In membrane CD14-positive cells, LPS is predominantly taken up via CD14-mediated pathways, whereas in the CD14-negative endothelial cells, there is a role for scavenger receptor-dependent pathways.