CD134 is a primary binding receptor for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and with CXCR4 facilitates infection of CD4(+) T cells. Human CD134 fails to support FIV infection. To delineate the regions important for defining virus specificity of CD134, we exchanged domains between human and feline CD134. The binding site for FIV surface glycoprotein (SU) is located in domain 1, in a region distinct from the natural ligand (CD134L)-binding site. Mutagenesis showed that Asp60 and Asp62 are required for interaction with FIV, and modeling studies localized these two residues to the outer edge of domain 1. Substitutions S60D and N62D, in conjunction with H45S, R59G and V64K, imparted both FIV SU binding and receptor function to human CD134. Finally, we demonstrated that soluble CD134 facilitates infection of CD134(-) CXCR4(+) target cells in a manner analogous to CD4 augmentation of HIV infection.