Flock House virus (FHV) is a nonenveloped, icosahedral insect virus whose genome consists of two molecules of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA. FHV is a highly tractable system for studies on a variety of basic aspects of RNA virology. In this review, recent studies on the replication of FHV genomic and subgenomic RNA are discussed, including a landmark study on the ultrastructure and molecular organization of FHV replication complexes. In addition, we show how research on FHV B2, a potent suppressor of RNA silencing, resulted in significant insights into antiviral immunity in insects. We also explain how the specific packaging of the bipartite genome of this virus is not only controlled by specific RNA-protein interactions but also by coupling between RNA replication and genome recognition. Finally, applications for FHV as an epitopepresenting system are described with particular reference to its recent use for the development of a novel anthrax antitoxin and vaccine.