Ganglioside GD2 is expressed on membranes of human melanoma cells and induces antibody responses in patients with melanoma. In this study a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection of human antibody against GD2. A human IgM monoclonal anti-GD2 antibody was used for development of the assay. The antigen, GD2, was prepared from human brain. Four micrograms of GD2 was required to coat a well in a polystyrene microtiter plate. As little as 10 ng of antibody could be detected. The applicability of the assay for detection of serum anti-GD2 antibody was demonstrated with sera from patients immunized with GD2-positive melanoma cell vaccine.