Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli. However, the precise roles of the different neurons comprising the MBs are still under debate. The confusion surrounding the roles of the different neurons may be due, in part, to the use of different odors as conditioned stimuli in previous studies. We investigated the requirements for the different MB neurons, specifically the alpha/beta versus the gamma neurons, and whether olfactory learning is supported by different subsets of MB neurons irrespective of the odors used as conditioned stimuli. We expressed the rutabaga (rut)-encoded adenylyl cyclase in either the gamma or alpha/beta neurons and examined the effects on restoring olfactory associative learning and memory of rut mutant flies. We also expressed a temperature-sensitive shibire (shi) transgene in these neuron sets and examined the effects of disrupting synaptic vesicle recycling on Drosophila olfactory learning. Our results indicate that although we did not detect odor-pair-specific learning using GAL4 drivers that primarily express in gamma neurons, expression of the transgenes in a subset of alpha/beta neurons resulted in both odor-pair-specific rescue of the rut defect as well as odor-pair-specific disruption of learning using shi(ts1).