Basal and forced swimming (FS) stress-induced release of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) were determined by in vivo microdialysis in the ventral hippocampus of mice overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor B promoter (GalOE/P) or under the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter (GalOE/D) (only NA). WT mice served as controls. Intraventricular infusion of galanin significantly reduced basal extracellular NA in WT mice and in GalOE/P mice (albeit less so). Microdialysis sampling during a 10-min FS showed that NA and 5-HT release were elevated to 213% and 156%, respectively, in the GalOE/P group, whereas in the WT group the increases were only 127% and 119%, respectively. The second (repeated) 10-min FS (RFS) caused a marked enhancement of NA and 5-HT release in the GalOE/P mice to 344% and 275%, respectively. However, the RFS caused only a 192% increase of extracellular NA levels in the GalOE/D mice. Pretreatment with the putative peptidergic galanin receptor antagonist M35 almost completely blocked the elevation of NA and 5-HT levels in the GalOE/P after RFS. These results suggest that the NA and 5-HT hippocampal afferents in GalOE/P mice are hypersensitive to both conditioned and unconditioned stressful stimuli, such as FS, and that this effect is mediated by galanin receptors. The present findings support a role of galanin in the regulation of release of NA and 5-HT, two neurotransmitters involved in mood control.