Several arenaviruses, including Lassa fever virus, cause severe, often lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. No licensed vaccines are available in the United States, and currently there is no efficacious therapy to treat this viral infection. Therefore the importance of developing effective antiviral approaches to combat pathogenic arenaviruses is clear. Moreover, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an important model for the study of viral persistence and associated diseases, as well as for exploring therapies to treat viral chronic infections. The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to downregulate gene expression via RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful genetic tool for the study of gene function. In addition, the successful use of siRNAs to target a variety of animal viruses has led us to consider RNAi as a potential novel antiviral strategy. We have investigated the use of RNAi therapy against LCMV. Here, we show that siRNAs targeting sequences within the viral L polymerase and Z mRNAs inhibit LCMV multiplication in cultured cells. Unexpectedly, the antiviral efficacy of RNAi-based therapy against LCMV was highly dependent on the method used to deliver effector siRNA molecules. Thus, transfection of chemically synthesized siRNA pools to L and Z was ineffective in preventing virus multiplication. In contrast, targeting of the same viral L and Z gene products with siRNAs produced inside cells using a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus expression system inhibited LCMV multiplication very efficiently. Notably, transduction with the replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus expression system to Z and L effectively cured persistently LCMV-infected cells, suggesting the feasibility of using RNAi therapy to combat viral chronic infections by riboviruses.