Vitamin K-dependent proteins were measured sequentially by immunoassay in eight patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving L-asparaginase (1000 U/kg/day) for 10 days as induction therapy, in combination with vincristine or vindesine, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone. The level of each protein was significantly decreased during L-asparaginase therapy, but both the time course of change and the severity of decrease differed among the proteins. The decrease in protein C, factor IX, and factor X was observed earlier than the decrease in protein S and factor II. In the first days of L-asparaginase therapy the protein C level was significantly lower than those of the other vitamin K-dependent proteins. The transient imbalance in the levels of plasma vitamin K-dependent proteins observed in the first days of treatment may contribute to the risk of thrombosis associated with L-asparaginase therapy.