Adenovirus E1A has long been known to activate/repress cellular and viral transcription. The transcriptional activity of nuclear extracts was depleted after chromatography on immobilized E1A protein columns that specifically retained the transcription factor (TF) IID. Stronger direct interactions between E1A and human TFIID than between E1A and yeast TFIID suggest that the unique sequences of the human protein may be involved. We have demonstrated that this interaction occurs directly between bacterially produced E1A and bacterially produced human TFIID in a protein blot assay. We propose that E1A protein may transduce regulatory signals from upstream activators to basal elements of the transcriptional machinery by contacting TFIID.