Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases are the most common heritable peripheral neuropathy. At least 10 different mutant alleles of GARS (the gene for glycyl-tRNA synthetase) have been reported to cause a dominant axonal form of CMT (type 2D). A unifying connection between these mutations and CMT has been unclear. Here, mapping mutations onto the recently determined crystal structure of human GlyRS showed them within a band encompassing both sides of the dimer interface, with two CMT-causing mutations being at sites that are complementary partners of a "kissing" contact across the dimer interface. The CMT phenotype is shown here to not correlate with aminoacylation activity. However, most mutations affect dimer formation (to enhance or weaken). Seven CMT-causing variants and the wild-type protein were expressed in transfected neuroblastoma cells that sprout primitive neurites. Wild-type GlyRS distributed into the nascent neurites and was associated with normal neurite sprouting. In contrast, all mutant proteins were distribution-defective. Thus, CMT-causing mutations of GlyRS share a common defect in localization. This defect may be connected in some way to a change in the surfaces at the dimer interface.