The cell walls of living bacteria were chemically modified by adding cell-wall precursors. As the precursors to be incorporated into the cell wall, UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide, lipid I, and lipid II derivatives were synthesized. The aimed compounds were attached to the amine residue of lysine at the pentapeptide moiety. Fluorescein-attached UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide was efficiently incorporated into both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, the permeability of the outer membrane (lipopolysaccharide layer) was enhanced by EDTA treatment before the incorporation. For Gram-positive bacteria, UDP-MurNAc derivatives were incorporated in the cell wall without EDTA treatment due to the lack of the lipopolysaccharide layer. Furthermore, instead of dyes, a ketone group was attached to the UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide. The ketone group was also delivered to the bacterial cell wall of lactic acid bacteria, giving a platform to attach large molecules on the surface.