Viruses utilize a diverse array of mechanisms to deliver their genomes into hosts. While great strides have been made in understanding the genome delivery of eukaryotic and prokaryotic viruses, little is known about archaeal virus genome delivery and the associated particle changes. The Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) archaeal virus that contains a host-derived membrane sandwiched between the genome and the proteinaceous capsid shell. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and different biochemical treatments, we identified three viral morphologies that may correspond to biochemical disassembly states of STIV. One of these morphologies was subtly different from the previously published 27-A-resolution electron density that was interpreted with the crystal structure of the major capsid protein (MCP). However, these particles could be analyzed at 12.5-A resolution by cryo-EM. Comparing these two structures, we identified the location of multiple proteins forming the large turret-like appendages at the icosahedral vertices, observed heterogeneous glycosylation of the capsid shell, and identified mobile MCP C-terminal arms responsible for tethering and releasing the underlying viral membrane to and from the capsid shell. Collectively, our studies allow us to propose a fusogenic mechanism of genome delivery by STIV, in which the dismantled capsid shell allows for the fusion of the viral and host membranes and the internalization of the viral genome.