H-2 alloantisera have been previously reported to contain antibodies against murine leukemia viral antigens, but the nature of the viral antigens on mouse cells which interact with these antibodies has not been established. We have found that H-2 alloantisera recognize components of molecular weight 70 000-80 000 mouse lymphocytes and leukemia cells. These components were also detected by a goat antiserum against the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) glycoprotein (gp 70) and are therefore closely related to or identical with that viral protein. Although most H-2 alloantisera detected gp 70-like molecules on lymphocytes and leukemia cells from a great variety of mouse strains, only one H-2 alloantiserum was found to interact with a gp 70 component on cells from C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 mice. Animals such as C57BL/10 mice that lacked the component reacting with most H-2 alloantisera showed increased serum levels of anti-MuLV antibodies after injection of B10.A spleen cells having a gp 70 component detectable by other H-2 alloantisera. In contrast, strains with cells reactive to antiviral antibodies in the H-2 alloantisera had low responses to MuLV antigens after a similar immunization procedure. Serum levels of anti-MuLV antibodies in both groups of mice, however, were increased after injection of Freund's adjuvant. These observations suggest that anti-MuLV antibodies in mouse alloantisera may arise from a response to viral antigens on the immunizing cells and general stimulation of the immune system.