Monoclonal antibody to Lyb 2, a differentiation antigen present on all B cells, has been used to study the role of Lyb 2 molecules in B cell activation. Monoclonal anti-Lyb 2 antibody (m-anti-Lyb 2) transforms resting B cells into blast cells and induces proliferation in these activated B cells. The proliferative response to anti-Lyb 2 is a property of the Lyb 5+ subset of B cells, since the antibody fails to stimulate B cells from mice expressing the CBA/N immune defect. B cells activated by anti-Lyb 2 mature into antibody-secreting cells in the added presence of T cell-replacing factors contained in the supernatants from concanavalin A-activated T cells. Thus, Lyb 2 molecules may participate in the delivery of stimulatory signals during the early phases of B lymphocyte activation.