Protein I is a principal endogenous substrate for cyclic AMP- and Ca2+-dependent protein kinases of mammalian brain. Antibodies raised against purified protein I have been used to localize this protein in the rat central nervous system. At the light microscope level, immunoreactivity was detected in punctate deposits in selected zones of synaptic termination. These deposits varied in density among brain regions. At the electron microscope level, immunoreactivity was observed at some but not all synaptic regions and was restricted to the perimeter of synaptic vesicles and to submembranous material in the postsynaptic neuron.