The RAD54 and RAD51 genes are involved in genetic recombination and double-strand break repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Rad51 protein is thought to be a yeast analogue of the Eschericia coli recA gene product and catalyzes strand exchange between homologous single- and double-stranded DNAs in vitro. RAD54 exhibits homologies to several known ATPases and is a member of the SWI2/MOT1 family. We show here that the Rad54 protein interacts with the Rad51 protein in vivo and in vitro and that the NH2-terminal 115 residues of the Rad54 protein are necessary for this interaction. Combined with previously reported results, these data imply that the Rad54 protein is part of a multiprotein yeast recombination complex.