Monospecific rabbit and goat antisera to human complement proteins and human immunoglobulins were tested for their ability to activate the alternative complement pathway. This activation was detected by two methods where classical pathway activation was blocked with EGTA and alternative pathway activation was promoted with added magnesium ions. These two methods consisted of lysis of GSHE and conversion of factor B into split products. C1q-depleted serum was used in a third assay system. Only antiserum to human factor B was able to activate the alternative pathway in the various systems used. None of the other anticomplement sera showed such activity. When antiserum to factor B was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and column chromatography, activation of the alternative pathway was found in the IgG fraction, and this activity was completely removed by absorption with purified factor B but not with other purified complement components.