A new scleroderma antigen of Mr = 34,000; pI, 8.5 has been identified. This 34-kDa protein is a nucleolar protein as determined by immunostaining procedures with affinity-purified antibodies. The 34-kDa protein was shown to localize to the fibrillar regions of the nucleolus by immunoelectron microscopy. Antibodies against the 34-kDa protein precipitate U3 RNA-containing particles. The 34-kDa protein has been isolated from Novikoff hepatoma cell nucleoli by ion exchange and reverse-phase column chromatography. The protein contains 4.1 mol % NG,NG-dimethylarginine (DMA) and 22.8 mol % glycine. It is the most highly arginine-methylated protein thus far detected in higher eukaryotes. This nucleolar 34-kDa protein resembles several nucleoplasmic proteins that are associated with heterogeneous nuclear RNA with respect to isoelectric point, Mr, presence of NG,NG-dimethylarginine, and its high glycine content. The amino-terminal sequence of the first 31 residues of the 34-kDa protein is: Met-Lys-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-DMA-Gly-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-DMA-Gly-Gly- Phe-Gly-Asp-DMA-Gly-Gly-DMA-Gly-Gly-Gly-DMA-Gly-Gly-DMA. In the first 31 residues, there are 16 glycine, 6 DMA, and 3 phenylalanine residues. This is a novel demonstration of clusters of glycine and DMA in a protein.