Efforts to elucidate the role of lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]) in atherogenesis have been hampered by the lack of an animal model with high plasma Lp[a] levels. We produced two lines of transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein [a] (apo[a]) in the liver and crossed them with mice expressing human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), generating two lines of Lp[a] mice. One had Lp[a] levels of approximately 700 mg/dl, well above the 30 mg/dl threshold associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis in humans; the other had levels of approximately 35 mg/dl. Most of the LDL in mice with high-level apo[a] expression was covalently bound to apo[a], but most of the LDL in the low-expressing line was free. Using an enzyme-linked sandwich assay with monoclonal antibody EO6, we found high levels of oxidized phospholipids in Lp[a] from high-expressing mice but not in LDL from low-expressing mice or in LDL from human apoB-100 transgenic mice (P <0.00001), even though all mice had similar plasma levels of human apoB-100. The increase in oxidized lipids specific to Lp[a] in high-level apo[a]-expressing mice suggests a mechanism by which increased circulating levels of Lp[a] could contribute to atherogenesis.