Since the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the causative agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis, significant effort has been devoted to understanding this important pathogen. Despite the difficulty in culturing this virus efficiently, much is known about the organization of the viral genome and the functions of many of the viral proteins. Through the use of surrogate expression systems combined with cellular fractionation, pull-down experiments and yeast two-hybrid screens, numerous interactions between hepatitis C virus proteins and cellular components have been identified. The relevance of many of these interactions to hepatitis C biology remains to be demonstrated. This review discusses recent developments in this area of HCV research.