Mouse liver mRNA enriched in sequences coding for liver phosphofructokinase by polysome immunoadsorption was used as a template for the synthesis of cDNA. The double-stranded cDNA was inserted into the expression vector lambda gt11 and cloned. Preliminary identification of clones containing cDNA sequences for phosphofructokinase was made by screening the library with anti-rat liver phosphofructokinase serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG as second antibody. Subsequently, by selecting antibodies specific to fusion proteins expressed by putative clones and by reacting with Western blots of mouse liver proteins several clones were positively identified as containing liver phosphofructokinase sequences. A cDNA clone corresponding to 2708 nucleotides of liver phosphofructokinase mRNA was further characterized and sequenced. The liver phosphofructokinase mRNA has an open reading frame of 2343 nucleotides followed by a 3'-untranslated region of 303 nucleotides. The G/C-rich (76%) portion of the 5'-untranslated region precedes a characteristic translational start site of CCGCC(AUG). The mRNA coding sequence indicates that the liver phosphofructokinase subunit is composed of 780 amino acid residues and has a Mr of 85,000. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of mouse liver phosphofructokinase with the known rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase shows 68% homology. The N-half of the liver phosphofructokinase has conserved substrate binding sites for ATP and fructose-6-P. The 25 C-terminal residues, which contain the ATP inhibitory site, are the least homologous (20%) but contain a putative phosphorylation site (Arg-Arg-X-X-Ser). The liver phosphofructokinase mRNA is under nutritional and hormonal regulation. The liver phosphofructokinase mRNA level increased 4-fold when previously starved mice were refed a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet. This increase in mRNA level was blocked by 50% by the administration of dibutyryl cAMP. The induction of liver phosphofructokinase mRNA by fasting/refeeding was also diminished in streptozotocin diabetic mice.