Neuronal dendritic and axonal arbors grow to a characteristic size and then stabilize their structures. Activity-dependent stop-growing signals may limit neuronal process elaboration. We tested whether endogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in postsynaptic optic tectal cells is required to restrict the elaboration of neuronal processes in the Xenopus tadpole retinotectal projection. Optic tectal cells were infected with vaccinia viruses that express CaMKII-specific inhibitory peptides. In vivo time-lapse imaging revealed that expression of CaMKII inhibitors blocked the growth restriction that normally occurs during maturation of tectal cell dendritic arbors. Postsynaptic CaMKII inhibition also increased the growth of presynaptic retinotectal axon arbors. The results indicate that endogenous postsynaptic CaMKII activity is required to limit the growth of presynaptic and postsynaptic arbor structures in vivo.