Use of methamphetamine is increasingly a significant factor for the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, for in certain populations, there is a convergence of methamphetamine abuse with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Methamphetamine and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are both individually neuropathogenic, and the neuropathology caused by these two agents occurs in overlapping brain regions. However, the biological interaction of methamphetamine with lentiviruses remains unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of simultaneous exposure of these two agents on disease progression using the feline immunodeficiency virus model. The study models the bingeing methamphetamine user with sequential and repeated episodes of use, which were interrupted by periods of abstinence. Methamphetamine exposure significantly accelerated and enhanced the severity of the feline immunodeficiency virus model-induced central nervous system functional pathology, as measured in delays in brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Reciprocally, feline immunodeficiency virus enhanced the severity of the methamphetamine-induced effects on brain monoamine neurotransmitter and dopamine transporter levels. The results of this study indicate that a dual potentiation occurred. That is, methamphetamine enhanced feline immunodeficiency virus model-induced central nervous system disease and feline immunodeficiency virus model enhanced the toxic effects of methamphetamine, heralding a significant concern for those individuals that are exposed to both agents.