During B lymphocyte development, Ig heavy and L chain genes are assembled by V(D)J recombination. Individual V, D, and J genes rearrange at very different frequencies in vivo, and the natural variation in recombination signal sequence does not account for all of these differences. Because a permissive chromatin structure is necessary for the accessibility of VH genes for VH to DJH recombination, we hypothesized that gene rearrangement frequency might be influenced by the extent of histone modifications. Indeed, we found in freshly isolated pro-B cells from muMT mice a positive correlation between the level of enrichment of VHS107 genes in the acetylated histone fractions as assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and their relative rearrangement frequency in vivo. In the VH7183 family, the very frequently rearranging VH81X gene showed the highest association with acetylated histones, especially in the newborn. Together, our data show that the extent of histone modifications in pro-B cells should be considered as a mechanism by which accessibility and the rearrangement level of individual VH genes is regulated.