The univalent hapten, nonadeca lysyl epsilon-Dnp-lysine, binds tightly to rabbit anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl antibody, and the complex has a sedimentation coefficient of 6.7, characteristic of a single antibody molecule. In this communication, we show that this complex is a good activator of the serum complement system. For activation to occur, the univalent hapten must contain the specific group which binds to the antibody, and also the polycationic chain. In addition, activation requires a functional complement-binding region on the intact antibody molecule. The classical pathway appears to be involved since the first, fourth, and second components of complement are markedly depleted when the complement system is activated by this univalent hapten-antibody complex.