Several classes of compounds have been tested as potential inhibitors of the serine protease thrombin, an important regulator of blood coagulation cascades. We describe here the discovery of a new class of thrombin inhibitors based on an unnatural carbamate biopolymer. Oligocarbamate thrombin inhibitors were identified through the screening of diverse cyclic trimer, cyclic tetramer, and linear tetramer libraries using the one bead, one peptide method. Whereas the cyclic trimer oligocarbamate ligands bound thrombin with modest affinity, a cyclic tetramer oligocarbamate inhibited thrombin with an apparent Ki of 31 nM. Linear oligocarbamate tetramers bound thrombin with inhibition constants in the 100-nM range. These nonpeptidic, oligomeric molecules may provide the basis for further drug development and studies of thrombin ligand interactions.