The relationship between the motor-activating and positive-reinforcing properties of d-amphetamine was examined in the place-preference paradigm. Two groups of animals were trained to associate one environment with amphetamine, and another environment with saline. Animals that were allowed to locomote in both environments during training later demonstrated a preference for the amphetamine-paired environment; animals in which hyperactivity was limited in both environments later failed to show any preference. However, both groups of animals demonstrated a conditioned locomotor activation to the amphetamine-associated environments. Our results suggest that a place-preference demonstrated for an amphetamine-paired environment depends on the ability of the drug to increase locomotor behavior.