Many LPS binding proteins have been described, but the exact nature of the LPS receptors that signal cells remains unclear. MD-2 is a molecule that is found in association with Toll-like receptor 4, which has been shown to be a receptor for LPS. We have produced human MD-2 in baculovirus and tested it for LPS binding. MD-2 binds the lipid A region of LPS without the need for LPS binding protein. These data suggest that MD-2 may be binding LPS as part of the TLR4 receptor complex.