Cell-free extracts prepared from growing cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces stimulated DNA synthesis directed by the supercoiled 2-micrometer yeast DNA plasmid. The major products of the reaction were open-circular daughter molecules possessing newly synthesized full-length linear DNA strands. Some of these were ligated and supertwisted by the extracts to yield a supercoiled DNA product. Both of the complementary DNA strands of the template were replicated. In addition, the extracts induced the appearance of theta-forms of the plasmid DNA, which are presumed to be replicative intermediates. The results of experiments utilizing BrdUTP incorporation indicated that DNA repair did not contribute significantly to the overall reaction. Extracts prepared from the cell division cycle mutants cdc7 and cdc8, held in culture at the nonpermissive temperature, possessed diminished activity. Because these mutants define a dependent sequence of events leading from the start of the cell cycle through G1 to S phase, this result suggests that the activity that stimulates 2-micrometer DNA replication in vitro is subject to control in the yeast cell cycle.