Monoclonal antibodies prepared against recombinant Vif derived from the 34TF10 strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were used to assess the expression and localization of Vif in virus-infected cells. Analyses by Western blotting and by immunoprecipitation from cells infected with FIV-34TF10 revealed the presence of a single 29-kDa species specific for virus-infected cells. Confirmation of antibody specificity was also performed by specific immunoprecipitation of in vitro-transcribed and -translated recombinant Vif. Localization experiments were also performed on virus-infected cells, using different fixation procedures. Results for methanol fixation protocols similar to those reported for localization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Vif showed a predominant cytoplasmic localization for FIV Vif, very similar to localization of HIV type 1 Vif and virtually identical to the localization observed for the Gag antigens of the virus. However, with milder fixation procedures that used 2% formaldehyde at 4 degrees C, FIV Vif was strongly evident in the nucleus. The localization was distinct from the nuclear localization noted with Rev and did not involve the nucleolus. Attempts to show colocalization or coprecipitation of Vif with Gag antigens were unsuccessful. In addition, Vif was not detected in purified FIV virions. The results are consistent with the notion that the primary role of Vif in virus infection initiates in the nucleus.