The nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenases of mitochondria and bacteria are proton pumps that couple hydride ion transfer between NAD(H) and NADP(H) bound, respectively, to extramembranous domains I and III, to proton translocation by the membrane-intercalated domain II. Previous experiments have established the involvement of three conserved domain II residues in the proton pumping function of the enzyme: His91, Ser139, and Asn222, located on helices 9, 10, and 13, respectively. Eight highly conserved domain II glycines in helices 9, 10, 13, and 14 were mutated to alanine, and the mutant enzymes were assayed for hydride transfer between domains I and III and for proton translocation by domain II. One of the glycines on helix 14, Gly252, was further mutated to Cys, Ser, Thr, and Val, expression levels of the mutant enzymes were evaluated, and each was purified and assayed. The results show that Gly252 is essential for function and support a model for the proton channel composed of helices 9, 10, 13, and 14. Gly252 would allow spatial proximity of His91, Ser139, and Asn222 for proton conductance within the channel. Gly252 mutants are distinguished by high levels of cyclic transhydrogenation activity in the absence of added NADP(H) and by complete loss of proton pumping activity. The purified G252A mutant has <1% proton translocation and reverse transhydrogenation activity, retains 0.9 mol of NADP(H) per domain III, and has 96% intrinsic cyclic transhydrogenation activity, which does not exceed 100% upon the addition of NADP(H). These properties imply that Gly252 mutants exhibit a native-like domain II conformation while blocking proton translocation and coupled exchange of NADP(H) in domain III.